The word periodontal is synonymous with the word gum. Healthy gum tissue fits like a cuff around each tooth. Where the gumline meets the tooth, it forms a slight v-shaped crevice called a sulcus. In healthy teeth, this space is usually three millimeters or less.
Periodontal diseases are infections that affect the tissues and bones that support your teeth. As the tissues are damaged, the sulcus develops into a pocket that is greater than three millimeters. Generally, the more severe the disease, the greater the pocket depth and bone loss. The enlarged pockets allow harmful bacteria to grow and make it difficult to practice effective oral hygiene. Left untreated, periodontal diseases may eventually lead to tooth loss.
What causes Periodontal Disease?
The mouth is filled with countless bacteria. Periodontal disease begins when certain bacteria in plaque (a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on the teeth and surfaces lining the mouth) produce toxins and enzymes that irritate the gums and cause inflammation. The resulting inflammation, which may be painless, can damage the attachment of the gums and bone to the tooth.
Good oral hygiene – brushing twice a day and flossing or using another interdental cleaner once a day – helps reduce the plaque film. Plaque that is not removed regularly can harden into rough porous deposits called calculus, or tartar. Calculus is not the main cause of periodontal diseases, but the pores in calculus hold bacteria and toxins, which are impossible to remove even with regular brushing and flossing. Once this hardened calculus forms, it can only be removed when teeth are cleaned professionally at the dental office.
How do I know if I have Periodontal Disease?
Unlike tooth decay, which often causes discomfort, it is possible to have periodontal disease without noticeable symptoms. This is why regular dental checkups including periodontal examination are very important. Several warning signs can signal a problem. While periodontal disease may begin slowly for some patients, others may develop a rapidly progressive form of the disease. Schedule an examination appointment if you notice any of the following:
•Gums that bleed easily
•Red, swollen or tender gums
•Gums that have pulled away from the teeth
•Persistent bad breath
•Pus between your teeth and gums
•Loose or separating teeth
•A change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
•A change in the fit of partial dentures